Dobry artykuł!@

Nauka już oficjalnie twierdzi, że wcześniejsze poglądy na przyczyny transformacji nowotworowej między bajki można włożyć. Wcześniej uważano, że za powstawanie nowotworów złośliwych odpowiadała kumulacja mutacji w genach kodujących szlaki odpowiedzialne za regulację cyklu komórkowego (proliferacji). Zmiany strukturalne chromosomów i tak dalej. Teraz się sądzi, że przyczyny nowotworzenia są o wiele bardziej złożone;

The Hallmarks of Cancer : The Next Generation

[….]We noted as an ancillary proposition that tumors are more than insular masses of proliferating cancer cells. Instead, they are complex tissues composed of multiple distinct cell types that participate in heterotypic interactions with one another. We depicted the recruited normal cells, which form tumor-associated stroma, as active participants in tumorigenesis rather than passive bystanders; as such, these stromal cells contribute to the development and expression of certain hallmark capabilities. During the ensuing decade this notion has been solidified and extended, revealing that the biology of tumors can no longer be understood simply by enumerating the traits of the cancer cells but instead must encompass the contributions of the “tumor microenvironment” to tumorigenesis.

In the course of remarkable progress in cancer research subsequent to this publication, new observations have served both to clarify and to modify the original formulation of the hallmark capabilities. In addition, yet other observations have raised questions and highlighted mechanistic concepts that were not integral to our original elaboration of the hallmark traits. Motivated by these developments, we now revisit the original hallmarks, consider new ones that might be included in this roster, and expand upon the functional roles and contributions made by recruited stromal cells to tumor biology.